Influence of fermentation conditions on the surface properties and adhesion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
Deepika, G., Karunakaran, E., Hurley, C. R., Biggs, C. A. and Charalampopoulos, D. (2012) Influence of fermentation conditions on the surface properties and adhesion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Microbial Cell Factories, 11 (1). 116. ISSN 1475-2859
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-11-116
Background: The surface properties of probiotic bacteria influence to a large extent their interactions within the gut ecosystem. There is limited amount of information on the effect of the production process on the surface properties of probiotic lactobacilli in relation to the mechanisms of their adhesion to the gastrointestinal mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the fermentation pH and temperature on the surface properties and adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Results: The cells were grown at pH 5, 5.5, 6 (temperature 37 °C) and at pH 6.5 (temperature 25 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C), and their surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel-based proteomics. The results indicated that for all the fermentation conditions, with the exception of pH 5, a higher nitrogen to carbon ratio and a lower phosphate content was observed at the surface of the bacteria, which resulted in a lower surface hydrophobicity and reduced adhesion levels to Caco-2 cells as compared to the control fermentation (pH 6.5, 37 oC). A number of adhesive proteins, which have been suggested in previous published works to take part in the adhesion of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract, were identified by proteomic analysis, with no significant differences between samples however. Conclusions: The temperature and the pH of the fermentation influenced the surface composition, hydrophobicity and the levels of adhesion of L. rhamnosus GG to Caco-2 cells. It was deduced from the data that a protein rich surface reduced the adhesion ability of the cells.