Obesity and body fat classification in the metabolic syndrome: impact on cardiometabolic risk metabotype
Philips, C. M., Tierney, A. C., Perez-Martinez, P., DeFoort, C., Blaak, E. E., Gjielstad, I. M. F., Lopez-Miranda, J., Kiec-Klimczak, M., Malczewska-Malec, M., Drevon, C. A., Hall, W., Lovegrove, J. A., Karlstrom, B., Riserus, U. and Roche, H. M. (2013) Obesity and body fat classification in the metabolic syndrome: impact on cardiometabolic risk metabotype. Obesity, 21 (1). pp. 154-161. ISSN 1930-739X
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Obesity is a key factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We investigated whether obesity classification by body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) influences cardiometabolic profile and dietary responsiveness in 486 MetS subjects (LIPGENE dietary intervention study). Anthropometric measures, markers of inflammation and glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, adhesion molecules and haemostatic factors were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks of 4 dietary interventions (high saturated fat (SFA), high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 2 low fat high complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, 1 supplemented with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs)). 39% and 87% of subjects classified as normal and overweight by BMI were obese according to their BF%. Individuals classified as obese by BMI (± 30 kg/m2) and BF% (± 25% (men) and ± 35% (women)) (OO, n = 284) had larger waist and hip measurements, higher BMI and were heavier (P < 0.001) than those classified as non-obese by BMI but obese by BF% (NOO, n = 92). OO individuals displayed a more pro-inflammatory (higher C reactive protein (CRP) and leptin), pro-thrombotic (higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)), pro-atherogenic (higher leptin/adiponectin ratio) and more insulin resistant (higher HOMA-IR) metabolic profile relative to the NOO group (P < 0.001). Interestingly, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentrations were lower post-intervention in NOO individuals compared to OO subjects (P < 0.001). In conclusion, assessing BF% and BMI as part of a metabotype may help identify individuals at greater cardiometabolic risk than BMI alone.