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Circulating bile acids as a link between the gut microbiota and cardiovascular health: impact of prebiotics, probiotics and polyphenol-rich foods

Pushpass, R.-A. G., Alzoufairi, S., Jackson, K. G. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0070-3203 and Lovegrove, J. A. (2021) Circulating bile acids as a link between the gut microbiota and cardiovascular health: impact of prebiotics, probiotics and polyphenol-rich foods. Nutrition Research Reviews. pp. 1-20. ISSN 0954-4224

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000081

Abstract/Summary

Beneficial effects of probiotic, prebiotic and polyphenol-rich interventions on fasting lipid profiles have been reported, with changes in the gut microbiota composition believed to play an important role in lipid regulation. Primary bile acids, which are involved in the digestion of fats and cholesterol metabolism, can be converted by the gut microbiota to secondary bile acids, some species of which are less well reabsorbed and consequently may be excreted in the stool. This can lead to increased hepatic bile acid neo-synthesis, resulting in a net loss of circulating low density lipoprotein. Bile acids may therefore provide a link between the gut microbiota and cardiovascular health. This narrative review presents an overview of bile acid metabolism and the role of probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenol-rich foods in modulating circulating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers and bile acids. Although findings from human studies are inconsistent, there is growing evidence for associations between these dietary components and improved lipid CVD risk markers, attributed to modulation of the gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism. These include increased bile acid neo-synthesis, due to bile sequestering action, bile salt metabolising activity and effects of short chain fatty acids generated through bacterial fermentation of fibres. Animal studies have demonstrated effects on the FXR/FGF-15 axis and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis (CYP7A1) and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP and HMGR). Further human studies are needed to determine the relationship between diet and bile acid metabolism and whether circulating bile acids can be utilised as a potential CVD risk biomarker.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:100078
Uncontrolled Keywords:Bile Acids, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Polyphenols, Cardiovascular Disease, Gut Microbiota
Publisher:Cambridge University Press

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