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Is protein the forgotten ingredient: effects of higher compared to lower protein diets on cardiometabolic risk factors. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Vogtschmidt, Y. D., Raben, A., Faber, I., de Wilde, C., Lovegrove, J. A. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7633-9455, Givens, D. I., Pfeiffer, A. F. H. and Soedamah-Muthu, S. S. (2021) Is protein the forgotten ingredient: effects of higher compared to lower protein diets on cardiometabolic risk factors. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Atherosclerosis, 328. pp. 124-135. ISSN 0021-9150

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.05.011

Abstract/Summary

Background and aims: Higher protein (HP) diets may lead to lower cardiometabolic risk, compared to lower protein (LP) diets. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the effects of HP versus LP diets on cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, using the totality of the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in electronic databases, up to November 2020. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to pool the standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The main outcomes were weight loss, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass, systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, HDL-and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, fasting glucose and insulin, and glycated haemoglobin. Results: Fifty-seven articles reporting on 54 RCTs were included, involving 4344 participants (65% female, mean age: 46 (SD 10) years, mean BMI: 33 (SD 3) kg/m2 ), with a mean study duration of 18 weeks (range: 4 to 156 weeks). Compared to LP diets (range protein (E%):10–23%), HP diets (range protein (E%): 20–45%) led to more weight loss (SMD -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23, − 0.03), greater reductions in fat mass (SMD -0.14, 95% CI: -0.24, − 0.04), systolic BP (SMD -0.12, 95% CI: -0.21, − 0.02), total cholesterol (SMD -0.11, 95% CI: -0.19, − 0.02), triacylglycerol (SMD -0.22, 95% CI: -0.30, − 0.14) and insulin (SMD -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22, − 0.03). No significant differences were observed for the other outcomes. Conclusions: Higher protein diets showed small, but favourable effects on weight loss, fat mass loss, systolic blood pressure, some lipid outcomes and insulin, compared to lower protein diets.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research (ICMR)
Interdisciplinary Research Centres (IDRCs) > Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health (IFNH)
Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:102357
Publisher:Elsevier

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