Adiposity, insulin and lipid metabolism in post-menopausal women
Lovegrove, J. A., Silva, K. D. R. R., Wright, J. W. and Williams, C. M. (2002) Adiposity, insulin and lipid metabolism in post-menopausal women. International Journal of Obesity, 26 (4). pp. 475-486. ISSN 0307-0565
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationships between body fat and its distribution and carbohydrate and lipid tolerance using statistical comparisons in post-menopausal women. DESIGN: Sequential meal, postprandial study (600 min) which included a mixed standard breakfast (30 g fat) and lunch (44 g fat) given at 0 and 270 min, respectively, after an overnight fast. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight post-menopausal women with a diverse range of body weight (body mass index (BMI), mean 27.2, range 20.5-38.8 kg/m2) and abdominal fat deposition (waist, mean 86.4, range 63.5-124.0 cm). Women with BMI <18 or >37 kg/m2, age>80 y and taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric measurements were performed to assess total and regional fat deposits. The concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, insulin (ins), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 were analysed in plasma collected at baseline (fasted state) and at 13 postprandial time points for a 600 min period. RESULTS: Insulin concentrations in the fasted and fed state were significantly correlated with all measures of adiposity (BMI, waist, waist-hip ratio (W/H), waist-height ratio (W/Ht) and sum of skinfold thickness (SSk)). After controlling for BMI, waist remained significantly and positively associated with fasted insulin (r=0.559) with waist contributing 53% to the variability after multiple regression analysis. After controlling for waist, BMI remained significantly correlated with postprandial (IAUC) insulin (r=0.535) contributing 66% of the variability of this measurement. No association was found between any measures of adiposity and glucose concentrations, although insulin concentration in relation to glucose concentration (glucose-insulin ratio) was significantly negatively correlated with all measures of adiposity. A significant positive correlation was found between fasted TAG and BMI (r=0.416), waist (r=0.393) and Ssk (r=0.457) and postprandial (AUC) TAG with BMI (r=0.385) and Ssk (r=0.406). A significantly higher postprandial apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 response was observed in those women with high BMI (>27 kg/m2). Fasting levels of NEFA were significantly and positively correlated with all measures of adiposity (except W/H). No association was found between cholesterol containing particles and any measure of adiposity. CONCLUSION: Hyperinsulinaemia associated with increasing body fat and central fat distribution is associated with normal glucose but not TAG or NEFA concentrations in postmenopausal women.
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