In vitro fermentation characteristics of whole grain wheat flakes and the effect of toasting on prebiotic potential
Connolly , M. L., Lovegrove, J. A. and Tuohy, K. M. (2012) In vitro fermentation characteristics of whole grain wheat flakes and the effect of toasting on prebiotic potential. Journal of Medicinal Food, 15 (1). pp. 33-43. ISSN 1557-7600
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2011.0006
Population studies have shown a positive correlation between diets rich in whole grains and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases, like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action, particularly the impact different fermentable components of whole grains have on the human intestinal microbiota. The modulation of microbial populations by whole grain wheat flakes and the effects of toasting on digestion and subsequent fermentation profile were evaluated. Raw, partially toasted, and toasted wheat flakes were digested using simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and then fermented using 24-hour, pH-controlled, anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human feces. Major bacterial groups and production of short-chain fatty acids were compared with those for the prebiotic oligofructose and weakly fermented cellulose. Within treatments, a significant increase (P<.05) in bifidobacteria numbers was observed upon fermentation of all test carbohydrates, with the exception of cellulose. Toasting appeared to have an effect on growth of lactobacilli as only fermentation of raw wheat flakes resulted in a significant increase in levels of this group.