Blood pressure lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects
Hobbs, D. A., Kaffa, N., George, T. W., Methven, L. and Lovegrove, J. A. (2012) Blood pressure lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 108 (11). pp. 2066-2074. ISSN 1475-2662
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512000190
A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to 36 nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective nitric oxide endogenously. Two separate 37 randomly controlled, single blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in 38 normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure was measured over a 24 h period 39 following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ) 0 g, 100 g, 250 g and 500 g 40 (n = 18) or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot and white beetroot 41 enriched breads (n =14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was measured at baseline, 2, 4 42 and 24 h post ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose dependent manner, 43 lowered systolic (P <0.01) and diastolic BP (P <0.001) over a period of 24 h, compared to 44 water control. Furthermore, bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered 45 systolic and diastolic BP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot enriched bread, P <0.05), with no 46 statistical differences between varieties. Total urinary NOx significantly increased following 47 consumption of 100 g (P<0.01), 250 g (P <0.001) and 500 g BJ (P <0.001) and after red 48 beetroot bread (P <0.05), but did not reach significance for white beetroot bread compared to 49 the no beetroot condition. These studies demonstrated significant hypotensive effects of a low 50 dose (100 g) of beetroot which was unaffected by processing, or the presence of betacyanins. 51 This data strengthens the evidence for cardioprotective BP lowering effects of dietary nitrate-52 rich vegetables.