Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat in vitro and in seizure models
Hill, A. J., Mercier, M. S., Hill, T. D., Glyn, S. E., Jones, N. A., Yamasaki, Y., Futamura, T., Duncan, M., Stott, C.G., Stephens, G.J., Williams, C. M. and Whalley, B.J. (2012) Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat in vitro and in seizure models. British Journal of Pharmacology, 167 (8). pp. 1629-1642. ISSN 0007-1188
To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02207.x
Summary Background and purpose: Phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa have diverse pharmacological targets extending beyond cannabinoid receptors and several exert notable anticonvulsant effects. For the first time, we investigated the anticonvulsant profile of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in vitro and in in vivo seizure models. Experimental approach: The effect of CBDV (1-100μM) on epileptiform local field potentials (LFPs) induced in rat hippocampal brain slices by 4-AP application or Mg2+-free conditions was assessed by in vitro multi-electrode array recordings. Additionally, the anticonvulsant profile of CBDV (50-200 mg kg-1) in vivo was investigated in four rodent seizure models: maximal electroshock (mES) and audiogenic seizures in mice, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine-induced seizures in rat. CBDV effects in combination with commonly-used antiepileptic drugs were investigated in rat seizures. Finally, the motor side effect profile of CBDV was investigated using static beam and gripstrength assays. Key results: CDBV significantly attenuated status epilepticus-like epileptiform LFPs induced by 4-AP and Mg2+-free conditions. CBDV had significant anticonvulsant effects in mES (≥100 mg kg-1), audiogenic (≥50 mg kg-1) and PTZ-induced seizures (≥100 mg kg-1). CBDV alone had no effect against pilocarpine-induced seizures, but significantly attenuated these seizures when administered with valproate or phenobarbital at 200 mg kg-1 CBDV. CBDV had no effect on motor function. Conclusions and Implications: These results indicate that CBDV is an effective anticonvulsant across a broad range of seizure models, does not significantly affect normal motor function and therefore merits further investigation in chronic epilepsy models to justify human trials.