APOE genotype influences triglyceride and C-reactive protein responses to altered dietary fat intake in UK adults
Carvalho-Wells, A. L., Jackson, K. G., Lockyer, S., Lovegrove, J. A. and Minihane, A. M. (2012) APOE genotype influences triglyceride and C-reactive protein responses to altered dietary fat intake in UK adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96 (6). pp. 1477-1453. ISSN 1938-3207
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To link to this article DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.043240
Background: The response of plasma lipids to dietary fat manipulation is highly heterogeneous, with some indications that APOE genotype may be important. Objective: The objective was to use a prospective recruitment approach to determine the effect of dietary fat quantity and composition on both lipid and nonlipid cardiovascular disease biomarkers according to APOE genotype. Design: Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 51 ± 9 y and a BMI (in kg/m2) of 26.0 ± 3.8 (n = 44 E3/E3, n = 44 E3/E4) and followed a sequential dietary intervention (the SATgenϵ study) in which they were assigned to a low-fat diet, a high-fat high-SFA (HSF) diet, and the HSF diet with 3.45 g DHA/d (HSF-DHA), each for 8 wk. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each intervention arm. Results: An overall diet effect was evident for all cholesterol fractions (P < 0.01), with no significant genotype × diet interactions observed. A genotype × diet interaction (P = 0.033) was evident for plasma triglycerides, with 17% and 30% decreases in APOE3/E3 and APOE3/E4 individuals after the HSF-DHA diet relative to the low-fat diet. A significant genotype × diet interaction (P = 0.009) was also observed for C-reactive protein (CRP), with only significant increases in concentrations after the HSF and HSF-DHA diets relative to the low-fat diet in the APOE3/E4 group (P < 0.015). Conclusions: Relative to the wild-type APOE3/E3 group, our results indicate a greater sensitivity of fasting triglycerides and CRP to dietary fat manipulation in those with an APOE3/E4 genotype (25% population), with no effect of this allelic profile on cholesterol concentrations. The SATgenϵ study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01384032.